Even with the advancement of security devices technology, security guards still play a crucial role in the world of security everywhere in the world. Including Indonesia.
Security guards could be found everywhere. From shopping centers to residential areas, they – directly or indirectly – have become a part of our daily routines. Becoming the first line of defense in an integrated security system for their clients’ assets.
Though it’s very likely that you see security guards every day in your life, have you ever asked yourself, what’s the official definition of security guards? When was the security guard formed in Indonesia? What’s the actual duties and functions of security guards? Is there any training that needs to be done to be security guards?
If so, this article will give you everything you need to know about security guards in Indonesia and answer all of those questions.
It’s pretty common for security guards in Indonesia to be called simply as “security”, even amongst Indonesians. Though the “official” Indonesian word for security guard – as will be explained further later in this article – is “satpam” (short for “satuan pengamanan”).
So, what is the official definition of security guard or satpam in Indonesia?
Disclaimer: As per writing this article, there is no official [English] translation of the regulations that will be referred to in this article. All translations were provided by the writer of this article.
The official definition of satpam are stated in the Regulation of the Indonesian National Police Number 4 of 2020 on Private Security (Peraturan Kepolisian Negara Republik Indonesia Nomor 4 Tahun 2020 Tentang Pengamanan Swakarsa) or Perpol No.4 of 2020, that says;
“Satuan Pengamanan or Satpam is a non-judicial unit or category of profession [that serve as a] police force with limited functionality that are formed through recruitment by security services business entities or security guard service users to perform security activities in conducting private security at their workplace.”
For additional information, private security or PAM Swakarsa (Pengamanan Swakara) is a type of security activities that are performed by a unit or a category of profession that serve as a police force with limited functionality on the communities’ own will, awareness, and interest. This form of security activities are officially recognized by the National Police of Indonesia.
Beside satpam or security guard, other category in Pam Swakarsa is the Neighborhood Watch (Satuan Keamanan Lingkungan) and Pam Swakarsa that come from social institutions or local wisdom, that are;
These groups got their official recognition from the Indonesian National Police’s (Polri) Kakorbinmas Baharkam (Kepala Korps Pembinaan Masyarakat Badan Pemelihara Keamanan), or the Head of the Community Development Corps of the Security Maintenance Agency through recommendation letters from the Regional Police’s (Polda) Dirbinmas (Direktur Pembinaan Masyarakat), or the Director of Community Development.
So, with all these different kinds of private security groups that’s officially recognized in Indonesia, who could actually be called as a security guard?
Section 1 of the 4th Article in the Perpol No. 4 of 2020 stated that the member of security guard is’
“… a private security [pegamanan swakarsa] officer that is recruited, trained, have a [satpam] license and employment status based on [the Indonesian] laws and regulations.”
A security guard prospective member are differentiated into two categories based on their backgrounds that affects the requirements needed for a prospective security guard member in the first step of becoming a security guard member
The two categories are;
While the three steps of becoming a security guard member are;
The relatively new Perpol No. 4 of 2020 is viewed as a foundation for security guard reformation in Indonesia, that officially recognized security guard as a profession with a clear career path based on the time served and competency of a security guard member.
A change in the right direction for the security guards nearing its 40th birthday at the time the regulation was passed.
But when does it all start? When did security guards start in Indonesia?
The development of security guard or satpam in Indonesia started on the 30th of December 1980. A date that was later chosen to be the birth date of satpam.
At the time, Awaloedin Djamin, the then Chief of the Indonesian National Police (1978-1982) passed the Chief of the Indonesian National Police Decree No. Pol.:SKEP/126/XII/1980 on Satpam Development System (Surat Keputusan Kapolri No. Pol.:SKEP/126/XII/1980 tentang Pola Pembinaan Satpam).
As written by historia.id, Awaloedin Djamin created a security guard to help the Indonesian National Police – that has a limited amount of personnel – to protect retail and office areas.
These security guard personnel will be paid by security companies while trained by the police.
The word “satuan pengamanan” or satpam itself is chosen by Awaloedin Djamin as the Indonesian translation of “security guard”.
To increase participation of the people, the Swakarsa Social and Security Public Order System (Sistem Keamanan dan Ketertiban Masyarakat Swakarsa) was announced by the Indonesian National Police with the support of The Operational Command for the Restoration of Security and Order (Komando Operasi Pemulihan Keamanan dan Ketertiban).
This security system was prepared thoroughly by Awaloedin Djamin, for rural areas and office areas to residential and retail areas.
After further research and comparative studies, the National Police Decree No. Pol.:SKEP/126/XII/1980 was finally passed by Awaloedin Djamin.
At the preparation stage, the uniform color of the security guards was shown in an event at the Indonesian National Police headquarter by the then Indonesian National Police Head of Logistics, Police Brigadier General Drs. Basiroen Nugroho.
Awaloedin Djamin then chose two colors for the security guard uniform, that are;
Additional attributes such as the name of the company and the Indonesian National Police region where the security guards are working must be sewn on the sleeves.
Not long after the decree was passed, the number of security guard personnel in Indonesia increased by 30,000. By 2020, the number of security guard personnel was approximately 1,600,000. Though only 500,000 was officially recorded.
Because of his service, on the 30th of December 1993 in the 13th birthday of satpam. Awaloedin Djamin was given the title “Founding Father of Satpam (Security Guard) in Indonesia” by the Police Lieutenant General Drs. Banurusman.
Since their creation by Awaloedin Djamin, security guard personnel duties are mainly to secure and maintain order in their workplace.
Their duties and functions, commonly known as “main duties and function” (“tugas pokok dan fungsi), or TUPOKSI, used to be regulated by Article 6 of the Chief of the National Police Regulation No. 24 of 2007 on Security Management System of Organizations, Companies And/or Government Agencies/Institutions.
Their main duties are mentioned in Paragraph 1, that says;
“ . . . to conduct security activities and maintain orders in their workplace or area that include physical, personnel, informational security aspects and other technical security activities.”
While their function is explained in Paragraph 2, that says;
“ . . . to protect and guard their workplace/work area from any security disturbance, and to enforce applicable rules and code of conduct in their workplace.”
Though the definition has been made redundant by the Indonesian National Police Regulation No. 4 of 2020 (as mentioned in Article 47 of Indonesian National Police Regulation No. 4), it appears that the new definition hasn’t changed much of the security guards’ personnel duties and functions.
In fact, the new regulation merged their duties and functions simply as “security guards’ personnel duties”, as Point A and Point B of Paragraph 2, Article 16 stated;
While their role are defined in Point A and Point B of Paragraph 3, Article 16, that says;
These duties and roles are imposed to security guards’ personnel that have been inaugurated, where they will be given;
The inauguration of security guards’ personnel was done by the Chief of the Indonesian National Police through Kakorbinmas Baharkam Polri or Dirbinmas Polri, depending on the place of their training.
There are three levels of training for security guard personnel; Gada Pratama Training, Gada Madya Training, and Gada Utama Training.
These training could be held either by the Indonesian National Police or a security services business entity that have an Operational License (Surat Izin Operasional – SIO) in the field of security training.
Gada Pratama training is the basic training for security guard personnel candidates with the purpose of forming the basic abilities and skills with gada pratama qualification.
For security guard personnel candidates that are former members of the Indonesian National Police or Indonesian National Army, this training is intended for the rank category of NCO (Tamtama) and Enlisted (Bintara).
Gada Pratama competencies required by security guard personnel are;
Gada Madya training is the intermediate training for security guard personnel with the purpose of forming intermediate abilities and skills with gada madya qualification.
More than that, the purpose of Gada Madya training is to create security guard personnel that have the mentalities, personalities, physical abilities, managerial knowledge and skills with security personnel supervisor qualification.
For security guard personnel candidates that are former members of the Indonesian National Police or Indonesian National Army, this training is intended for the ranks category of junior officers (perwira pertama) to senior officers (perwira menengah) that are equivalent to the rank of Police Adjunct Chief Commissioner (Ajun Komisaris Besar Polisi) in the Indonesian National Police.
Gada madya competencies include the ability to;
The highest level of training for security guard personnel is the Gada Utama training with the purpose of creating security guard personnel that have the mentalities, personalities, physical abilities, and managerial knowledge and abilities with security guard personnel manager qualifications.
Moreover, this training is intended to create security guard personnel with the ability to analyze tasks and activities, manage resources and solve problems in the scope of their duties and responsibilities.
For security guard personnel that are former member of the Indonesian National Police or the Indonesian National Army, this training are intended for rank category of senior officers (perwira menengah) that are equivalent to the rank of Police Chief Commissioner (Komisaris Menengah) in the Indonesian National Police to the rank category of general officers (perwira tinggi).
Gada Utama competencies include the ability to;
With the new regulation, these training levels and competencies are directly related to the career path of security guard personnel.
Article 19 of the regulation divided security guard personnel career path into three categories, that are;
While its ranks are explained in Paragraph 1 to Paragraph 3 of Article 20 of the regulation. That – from highest to lowest – are;
Security guard as a unit or a category of profession that have limited police function, plays a pivotal role of being the first layer of defense in an integrated security system.
More than 40 years ago in Indonesia, the journey of security guard as an entity started when the then Chief of the Indonesian National Police, Awaloedin Djamin, officially established security guards to help the police in protecting offices and retail areas through a Decree.
Not long after, the number of security guards in Indonesia was estimated to be at 30,000 that kept increasing to be approximately 1,600,000 in 2020.
The duties of security guards are to maintain security and order in their workplace or area that includes physical security, personnel, informational and other technical security activities; in addition to protect and guard its communities.
There are three levels of training for security guard in Indonesia, namely; Gada Pratama Training (basic skills and abilities to be a security guard personnel), Gada Madya Training (managerial skills and abilities with security guard personnel supervisor qualification), and Gada Madya Training (managerial skills and abilities with security guard personnel manager qualification).
Security guards are established through recruitment by security service business entities (BUJP) or security guard service users to perform their duties in their workplace or environment.
As a security service business entity (BUJP) in Indonesia, Nawakara has always been supporting and developing security guards’ pivotal role through Nawakara Manned Guarding Service and Nawakara Security Training Service, as a part of our integrated and comprehensive Plan-Prevent-Protect framework.